The condition may be traced to various factors.
A fall during a seizure, can cause head injury or break a bone. An epileptic seizure while swimming, can cause drowning. A seizure while driving can cause loss of control and result in a serious accident. Seizures during pregnancy pose dangers to both mother and baby.
A single anti-epileptic drug can make a person seizure-free. However, the medication has to be continued, sometimes indefinitely. In others, medication can decrease the frequency and intensity of seizures. Sometimes the seizure continue to occur in partially with just a transient behavior change. This may be because of inadequate treatment, inappropriate medication, or an irritant focus in the brain.
Symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure.
Tonic-clonic seizures (also called grand mal).
These are the most common and most intense of all types of seizures. The person loses consciousness, falls, and has stiffening and jerking of the body, and loss of bladder control.
Simple partial seizures.
There is no loss of consciousness. There may be a transient involuntary alteration of emotions (sudden crying or laughing) or a change the way things look, smell, feel, taste or sound. There may be just a jerking of one part of the body, such as an arm or leg. Or there may be spontaneous sensory symptoms such as tingling, vertigo or flashing lights. The person remains fully conscious during the seizure but has no control over what is happening. The symptoms usually last for a few seconds.
Complex partial seizures.
There is a transient alteration of consciousness, with loss of awareness for a period of time during which the person carries out bizarre behaviour or nonpurposeful movements — such as hand rubbing, twitching, chewing, swallowing or walking in circles or behaves abnormally. The persons are not aware of what they are doing.
There is a fleeting period of loss of awareness with staring and subtle body movement such as nodding, blinking, or licking the lips. The person experiences a "loss of time".
There is a sudden jerks or twitch of the arms and legs which may result in a fall, with the person getting up immediately, and not being aware of the cause of the fall.
There is a sudden lose of normal muscle tone with a sudden collapse called a "drop attack".
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